in Enjoying Maine Birds, edited by Olin Sewall Pettingill, Jr., recommends the following wildlife plantings as being hardy in most regions and most soils of Maine. A tree, as opposed to a shrub, grows from a single stem, though it may branch out quickly and low down, especially when grown in the open.

Trees:                                 Height
Siberian Crab Apple                     50
(Malus baccata)
European Mountain Ash                   45
(Sorbus aucuparia)
Bechtel's Crab Apple                    30
(Malus ioensis)
Fleshy Hawthorn                         15
(Crataegus succulenta)

Nannyberry                              30
(Viburnum lentago)
Amur Honeysuckle                        15
(Lonicera maacki)
Arrow-wood                              15
(Viburnum dentatum)
Highbush Cranberry                      12
(Viburnum trilobum)
American Elder                          12
(Sambucus canadensis)
Highbush Blueberry                      10
(Vaccinium corymbosum)
Winterberry                              9
(Ilex verticillata)
Tartarian Honeysucke                     9
(Lonicera tartarica)
Bayberry                                 8
(Myrica pensylvanica)
Red Osier Dogwood                        7
(Cornus stolonifera)
Inkberry                                 6
(Ilex glabra)
Witherod                                 6
(Viburnum cassinoides)
Coralberry                              3-6
(Symphoricarpos orbiculatus)
Fragrant Sumac                           3
(Rhus aromatica)
Dryland Blueberry                        3
(Vaccinium pallidum)

American Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
Trumpet Honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens)
Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)

Bearberry (Arcostaphylos uva-ursi)
Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
Lowbush Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, 
var. laevifolium)

These specific plantings can be used alone or in conjunction with other recommended plantings, such as Pines (Pinus spp.), Oaks (Quercus spp.), and herbaceous materials. Check with your local garden center, nursery, or landscape designer.

When designing a garden for multiple non-visual aesthetic values, keep in mind fragrance producers, shade and temperature contrasts, screening, wind, and tactile sensation.