Night walk - Winter


Welcome to a night walk at the Penquis virtual nature center.  Night walks in the winter tend
to be short around here.  I'm sure you can figure out some of the reasons for that.  I will
be your guide tonight, and will try to get you back to the warm fire and the hot chocolate before
you -- and I -- freeze to death.

You will not be handicapped as much by the absence of light as will naturalists dependent upon
sight for their understanding and appreciation of nature.  However, you would be just as 
inconvenienced by freezing to death as we will try to keep in mind.  We will take a short walk around
the center, visiting briefly the gardens and listening for night birds in the surrounding area.
With any luck, we should find at least one or two owls.

There are three owls that are very common here, and on rare occasions a couple other species are
found.  Don't expect them, though.  The common birds are barred owl, you know, the one that wants
to know who your cook is.  The great horned gives a series of booming hoots, and the saw-whet gives
a rasping sound as well as a long, irregular series of single whistled notes.

First let's stop at this spot.  Reach out toward me and I'll guide your hands toward a small
shrub.  Be careful, it's sharp.  Feel the thornes?  It's a multiflora rose, favored food of
mockingbirds during the winter.  Mockers probably spread north following the spread of this
plant.  Feel along for the rose hip.  That's what the birds eat.  They also eat several other
winter plants in the area.

Now we'll visit our spruce garden.  Feel them as you come to them.  They are too small for the
bark to be very distinctive, but feel the foliage.  The first is the white spruce.  Crush a
needle and smell.  It's like a recently-used cat box, isn't it?  That is the key to white spruce.
The next one is a red spruce.  That and the following black spruce are very difficult to tell apart
unless you have cones -- and that is either by feel or by sight.  The black spruce has tiny little
round cones less than an inch across generally.  The red has cones only a little larger, but elongated.
The best way to tell them apart is that red spruce grows where it is dry, black spruce in
bogs.  Be careful of the last spruce in line.  This one is not native.  It is the commonly-planted
blue spruce.  The needles are very stiff and sharp.  We include this one as a caution to grabbing
spruces when you don't know if they are native or not.

Next -- wait, there was an owl! Listen.  That's a barred owl.  "Who
cooks for you; who cooks for you-all."  Southern birds really drag out the 'all'.  Northern
birds don't always even say it.  You'll notice this one is sort of in between.  Let's listen
and see if he calls again.  Yup, there he goes.  They also have a
bunch of other calls.  One is a hoooo-hooo-hooo-haaa-haaa-haaaa-haaaa sound that some people
refer to as the monkey call.  It is a territorial defense call.

OK, let's move on a bit.  Here we have two birch trees.  Feel the bark.  They are a bit young for
the full peeling effect to have begun, but you can get the idea.  Incidently, not all birches
have peeling bark.  The native gray birch peels very little.  It is like an unpeeled white birch
of poor form and with sort of arrow-head-shaped leaves.  Some planted European birches don't peel
much either.  Most have drooping branches.

But -- and now we come to the point of this little demo -- both the white birch, also called canoe
birch, and the yellow birch have peeling bark.  Visually they are easy to tell apart, but by feel
about the only way is to check the leaves.  The yellow birch has larger, rougher leaves that are
more off-centered at the base.

There is, however, one defining characteristic that can be used even when the trees are too small
to be readily told apart by appearance -- and when there are no leaves.  Scratch a twig.  First,
do the one closest beside me.  Now smell it.  Not much of anything, huh?  Now, I'll move back
a few steps.  Follow -- what was that?  Hear it?  That rasping sound like somebody filing a saw.
And there begins the series of irregularly-spaced whistles.  That's a sawwhet owl.

Well, that's sort of surprising considering that a barred owl just called.  Hearing a big owl
usually shuts up the little owls.  Why?  Well, big owls eat little owls and that makes little
owls reluctant to reveal their presence when they know there is a larger owl around.  The great
horned is, of course, the biggest owl around except maybe the snowy or the great gray, and neither
of those are found here very often.

Anyway, back to the birches.  Now scratch the twigs of the second birch.  What do you smell now?
Right, wintergreen.  That is the yellow birch.  They smell of wintergreen, and you can tell them
from the other native birches by that smell.

Well, I don't know about you, but that cyber chocolate is starting to sound awfully good.  I think
it's time for us to go back inside.  But wait?  What is that? Listen.  Yep,
that completes our owl inventory for the evening.  Now we have a great horned.  Just listen for a
moment more before we head back inside.  Well, I'm getting cold. Thank you all for coming.
Just a minute. (DVG)  Those were coyotes.  We don't hear them as much
in this area as is true out west.  But we heard those.  OK.  Let's head in.

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